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In root position, which member of the triad is often omitted in 3-part textures?

The 5th

In root position, which member of the chord is doubled?

The root

In four-part writing, what is a common way to voice a final root position I chord? 

Tripled root


No 5th

What is the definition of a "close structure" voicing?

A voicing with less than an octave between soprano and tenor

What is the definition of an "open structure" voicing?

A voicing with an octave or more between the tenor and soprano.

What spacing conventions does Kostka recommend for your first exercises in part writing?

Avoid overly spacious sonorities by keeping each upper part (excluding the bass) within an octave of its successive part.  

Describe the three methods of ROOT POSITION four-part writing when the roots are a 4th or 5th apart

1. Keep common tone. Remaining upper parts move stepwise. Ascending for P5 down / P4 up, descending for P5 up / P4 down

2. Move all 3 upper parts in the same direction, no leap larger than a 3rd. Descending for P5 down / P4 up, ascending for P5 up / P4 down.

3. Keep common tone. Voice that has 3rd of first the chord leaps to provide 3rd of the second chord. Remaining voice moves by step.

What is the 4-voice ROOT POSITION part writing method for roots that are a 3rd / 6th apart?

Keep common tones. Move remaining voice by step.

Which part should NOT be omitted when moving the root up by a 3rd?

You should not omit the 5th else the listener might hear an inversion of the first chord rather than a new harmony.

No accidentals (minor)


1 flat(s) (minor)


2 flat(s) (minor)


3 flat(s) (minor)


4 flat(s) (minor)


5 flat(s) (minor)


6 flat(s) (minor)


7 flat(s) (minor)


1 sharp(s) (minor)


2 sharp(s) (minor)


3 sharp(s) (minor)


4 sharp(s) (minor)


5 sharp(s) (minor)


6 sharp(s) (minor)


7 sharp(s) (minor)


No accidentals (major)


1 flat(s) (major)


2 flat(s) (major)


3 flat(s) (major)


4 flat(s) (major)


5 flat(s) (major)


6 flat(s) (major)


7 flat(s) (major)


1 sharp(s) (major)


2 sharp(s) (major)


3 sharp(s) (major)


4 sharp(s) (major)


5 sharp(s) (major)


6 sharp(s) (major)


7 sharp(s) (major)



What are the voice leading rules for root-position chords a 2nd apart? What is the exception to this?


Assuming a doubled root, upper voice move stepwise in contrary motion to the bass.

The exception is in the deceptive progression of V-vi. Generally, the leading tone will resolve up to 1 and the other two voices will resolve down (contrary to bass). In major mode, if the LT is in an inner voice, it may resolve down to 6.

In a V-VI progression (minor mode), why can't an inner voice LT resolve down to 6?


Because the interval between flat 6 (minor mode) and sharp 7 (LT) is an awkward A2.

What are the part writing rules for first inversion triads?

1. In contrapuntal texture, doubling is the one that results from the best voice leading.

2. In a homophonic texture, doubling is the one that provides the desired sonority.

3. DON'T double the leading tone.

In a three-part texture, are first inversion chords frequently incomplete? Compared to root position chords? If a first inversion chord in incomplete, which voice is most frequently omitted?

1st Inversion chords are usually COMPLETE in three part writing. Though incomplete triads occur, it is not with the same frequency as incomplete root position triads. If a member of the chord is omitted, it is usually the 5th.

Should you indicate inversions in a passage where the bass takes the melody?

No. The bass in no longer the harmonic foundation in such passages.

What are the three types of six-four chords?

1. Cadential - I six-four in *metrically stronger* position resolving to root position V

2. Passing six-four - second inversion triad, typically on weak beat, harmonizing a scalar bass (either ascending or descending)

3. Pedal six-four - 3rd and 5th move up a step then back down a step resulting in either I-IVsixfour-I or V-Isixfour-V

What are the 4-voice part-writing conventions for second inversion triads?

The bass (the 5th of the chord) should be doubled. The other voices move as smoothly as possible.

In 3-part textures, it is best to have all members present but occasionally the root or 3rd will be omitted in which case the 5th should be doubled.


Define PAC.

Perfect Authentic Cadence: 

V-I in root position, 1 in the melody over the I chord

Define IAC and Inverted IAC.

Imperfect Authentic Cadence: V-I but 3 or 5 in melody over I chord.

Inverted IAC has either or both chords inverted.

Define a DC

Deceptive Cadence: 

V-vi or V-VI


Define an HC

Half-cadence: Any cadence that ends in V

Define a Phrygian Half-Cadence

iv6 - V

Define a PC

Plagal Cadence: IV-I -- often a tag added on after a PAC

What are the two important rules to remember when resolving the root position V7?

1. 4 resolves down to 3

2. 7 resolves up to 1

How do you get from root position V7 to a complete tonic triad

1. Use an incomplete V7 (omitting the 5th or, less frequently, the 3rd) and doubling the tonic.

2. Put the leading tone in an inner voice and frustrate its natural resolution by taking it down a M3 to the 5th of the tonic

Which first inversion triad should NOT follow a V7?

A I6 or i6 because 5 resolving down to 3 implies parallel 8ves with the 4-3 resolution.

Which inversion of V7 can be substituted for root position V7 at important cadences?


Besides inversion and resolution what other aspect of the V7 should be analyzed?

The approach to the 7th.

What are the four approaches to the 7th?


1. Suspension figure - same pitch class as the 7th

2. Passing tone figure - a step above the 7th

3. Neighbor tone figure - a step below the 7th

4. Appogiatura figure - almost always an ascending leap to pitch above the 7th

In what key way does the resolution of secondary dominants frequently differ from the resolution of primary dominants?

Sometimes the chord of resolution contains a 7th in which case the leading tone may need to resolve down a half-step to become the 7th of the chord of resolution.

What are voice leading conventions for a circle of 5ths progression in a four-part texture?


1. If seventh chords are in ROOT position, complete chords will alternate with incomplete chords (5th omitted).

2. If the seventh chords are inverted, either 6/5 chords will alternate with 4/2 chords or 4/3 chords will alternate with 7 (root position) chords.

What are the voice leading conventions for a circle of 5ths progression in a THREE-part texture?


Generally, the chords will be in root position. The 5th is most often omitted.

What are the voice leading principles for leading tone chords (both primary and secondary)?

LT down

7th up


Smooth voice leading is usually, but not always, a feature of the progressions.

In what tonality do we usually find mode mixture. Which notes are altered and what chords do they allow?

Mode mixture is usually in major.

The flat-6 allows for the vii full-diminshed 7, iv, ii full-diminished 7 and ii half-diminished 7

Besides the flat-6, what other notes can be borrowed from minor?

The flat 3 and the flat 7.

Flat 3 allows for i (minor tonic), flat VI, iv7

Flat 7 allows for flat III and flat VII

If a tone must be doubled in the Neapolitan, which one will it usually be?

The 3rd.

What is the goal of the Neapolitan? What could appear between the N and this goal? What usually would NOT appear between N and the goal?

V (or I6/4 - V)

viio7 of V could appear between them

iv or ii usually would NOT.

What are the voice leading conventions for the Neapolitan?

The flat-2 moves down a diminshed 3rd to the LT.

However, it is filled in by the tonic pitch if N first moves to i6/4 or vii/V first.

What voice leading mistake do you need to avoid with the progression N6 to i6/4?

Parallel 5ths. You should use Parallel 4ths instead.

How is N6 most frequently preceded?

Like the unaltered ii dim 7 it is usually preceded by VI, iv or i

In a four-part texture which pitch of the It+6 is doubled?

The tonic.

What happens if Ger+6 moves directly to V?

Parallel 5ths -- not so objectionable because of Aug 6th resolution.

However, composers usually manage to hide these parallels through suspensions / anticipations or through leaps / arpeggiations.

What is the Swi+6?

An enharmonic spelling of Ger+6 found in major mode only when Ger+6 is going to I6/4.

How are Ger+6 chords notated on lead sheets?

Mm7 on the 6th scale degree.

e.g. C: Ab7 - G7 = Ger+6 to V7


What is conventional voicing of Aug 6th chords?

flat-6 in the bass and sharp-4 in an upper part.

Resolves outward.

What scale degrees are usually represented in the +6?

flat 6 and #4