Select '>' to see answers, then uncheck boxes when incorrect.
consciousness
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our awareness of ourselves and our environment


cognitive neuroscience
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the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)


Scientists assume, in the words of neuroscientist Marvin Minsky, that "the mind is _________.
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what the brain does


______ is taking the first small step of discovering how the brain does what it does by relating specific brain states to conscious experiences.
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cognitive neuroscience


_______ contributes to consciousness
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upper brainstem


dual processing
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the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks


selective attention
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the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus


inattentional blindness
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failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere


change blindness
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failing to notice changes in the environment


circadian rhythm
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the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle


REM sleep
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rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. also known as paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active 


paradoxical sleep
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REM sleep

because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active


alpha waves
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the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state


sleep
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periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, a general anesthesia, or hibernation


hallucinations
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false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus


delta waves
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the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep


insomnia
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recurring problems in falling or staying asleep


narcolepsy
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a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times


sleep apnea
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a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings


night terrors
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a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within 2 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered


dream
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a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing though a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties in remembering it


manifest content
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according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content)


latent content
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according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content)


REM rebound
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the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)


memory
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the persistence of learning over time though the storage and retrieval of information


encoding
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the processing of information into the memory system- for example, by extracting meaning


storage
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the retention of encoded information over time


retrieval
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the process of getting information out of memory storage


sensory meaning
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the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system


short-term memory
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 activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten


long-term memory
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the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences


working memory
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a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory


automatic processing
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unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learning information, such as word meanings


effortful processing
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encoding that requires attention and conscious effort


rehearsal
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the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage


spacing effect
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the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice


serial position effect


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our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list


visual encoding
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the encoding of picture images


acoustic encoding
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the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words


semantic encoding
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the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words


imagery
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mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding


mnemonics
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memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices


chunking
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organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically


iconic memory
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a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second


echoic memory
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a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds


long-term potentiation (LTP)
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an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.


flashbulb memory
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a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event


amnesia
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the loss of memory


implicit memory
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retention independent of conscious recollection (also called nondeclarative memory)



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explicit memory
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memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare" (also called declarative memory)


hippocampus
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neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage


proactive interference
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the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information


retroactive interference
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the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information


repression
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in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories


misinformation effect
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incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event


source amnesia
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attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (also called source misattribution) Source amnesia, is at the heart of many false memories.


An air pump that keeps the sleeper's airway open and breathing regular is often prescribed for serious cases of
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sleep apnea


The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every



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90 minutes.


REM sleep is referred to as paradoxical sleep because



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the body's muscles remain relaxed while the brain and eyes are active.


During which stage of sleep does the body experience increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and genital arousal?



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REM sleep



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Occur when?

Nightmares are to ________ as night terrors are to ________.



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REM sleep; Stage 4 sleep


The absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces orexin has been linked to



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narcolepsy.


People who heard unusual phrases prior to sleep were awakened each time they began REM sleep. The fact that they remembered less the next morning provides support for the ________ theory of dreaming.



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information-processing


After flying from California to New York, Arthur experienced a restless, sleepless night. His problem was most likely caused by a disruption of his normal



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circadian rhythm.


(006) Unconscious information processing is more likely than conscious processing to



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occur simultaneously on several tracks.


(004) Concluding his presentation on levels of information processing, Miguel states that



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conscious processing is serial, while unconscious processing is parallel.


(015) Research participants picked one of two photographed faces as more attractive. When researchers cleverly switched the photos, participants readily explained why they preferred the face they had actually rejected. Their behavior illustrated



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choice blindness.


(010) While reading a novel, Raoul isn't easily distracted by the sounds of the TV or even by his brothers' loud arguments. This best illustrates



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selective attention.


(003) Which specialty area would be most interested in identifying the cortical activation patterns associated with a person's perception of different objects?



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cognitive neuroscience


(003) A large amount of our mental activity occurs outside our awareness thanks to our capacity for



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dual processing.



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(012) Ohio State University pedestrians were more likely to cross streets unsafely if they were talking on a cellphone. This best illustrates the impact of



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selective attention.


According to Freud, dreams are



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a symbolic fulfillment of erotic wishes.


The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during Stage 2 sleep are called



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sleep spindles.


Which of the following is NOT an example of a biological rhythm?

- sudden sleep attacks during the day

- the 90- minutes sleep cycle

- the circadian rhythm

- the five sleep stages


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sudden sleep attacks during the day


Which of the following is NOT a theory of dreaming mentioned in the text?

- dreaming is an attempt to escape from social stimulation

- dreams facilitate information processing

- dreaming stimulates the developing brain

- dreams result from random neural activity


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Dreaming is an attempt to escape from social stimulation.


Barry has participated in a sleep study for the last four nights. He was awakened each time he entered REM sleep. Now that the experiment is over, which of the following can be expected to occur?



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There will be an increase in Barry's REM sleep.



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During which stage of sleep does the body experience increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and genital arousal?



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REM sleep


(007) Parallel processing is to serial processing as ________ is to ________.



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the unconscious; the conscious


(014) Research participants who were focused on repeating a list of sometimes challenging words failed to notice a change in the identity of the person reciting the words. This best illustrates



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change deafness.


(009) Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of



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selective attention.


(006) The perceptual error in which we fail to see an object when our attention is directed elsewhere is



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inattentional blindness.


(003) A large amount of our mental activity occurs outside our awareness thanks to our capacity for



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dual processing.



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(014) In one experiment, most of the participants who viewed a videotape of men tossing a basketball remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman sauntering across the screen. This illustrated



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inattentional blindness.


Compared with adults, children are more/less likely to experience



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more likely to experience night terrors and more likely to experience sleepwalking.


Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true?



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REM sleep deprivation results in a REM rebound.


Hypnagogic sensations are most closely associated with ________ sleep.



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Stage 1


Dreams often involve sudden emotional reactions and surprising changes in scene. This best serves to support the theory that dreams



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are triggered by random bursts of neural activity.



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Brain regions that buzz with activity as people learn to perform a visual-discrimination task are especially likely to buzz again later as they experience



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REM sleep.


While soundly asleep people cannot



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learn tape-recorded messages to which they are repeatedly exposed.


Research on sleep patterns indicates that



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sleep patterns may be genetically influenced.


(007) Consciousness is to unconsciousness as ________ is to ________.



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serial processing; parallel processing


(008) Compared with unconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively



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slow and especially effective for solving new problems.


(004) Brain damage left one woman unable to recognize the width of a block even though she could grasp it with just the right finger-thumb distance. This unusual case illustrates the importance of our normal capacity for



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dual processing.


(006) Shown the hollow face illusion, people will mistakenly perceive the inside of a mask as a protruding face. Yet, they will accurately reach into the inverted mask to flick off a buglike target stuck on the face. This best illustrates the capacity for



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dual processing.


The process of getting information out of memory is called



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retrieval.


To recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory, researchers have characterized it as ________ memory.



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working


After Maya gave her friend the password to a protected Web site, the friend was able to remember it only long enough to type it into the password box. In this instance, the password was clearly stored in her ________ memory.



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short-term



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The three-stage processing model of memory was proposed by



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Atkinson and Shiffrin.


Short-term recall is slightly better



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for random digits than for random letters.



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An understanding of the distinction between implicit and explicit memories is most helpful for explaining



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infantile amnesia.


A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called ________ memory.



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iconic


Excitement or stress triggers our glands to produce stress hormones. This is most likely to facilitate



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long-term potentiation.



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(007) Although you can't recall the answer to a question on your psychology midterm, you have a clear mental image of the textbook page on which it appears. Evidently, your ________ encoding of the answer was ________.



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visual; automatic


(004) Effortful processing can occur only with



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conscious attention.


(016) The fact that our preconceived ideas contribute to our ability to process new information best illustrates the importance of



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semantic encoding.



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(015) Most people misrecall the sentence, ?The angry rioter threw the rock at the window? as ?The angry rioter threw the rock through the window.? This best illustrates the importance of



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semantic encoding.



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(051) People should avoid back-to-back study times for learning Spanish and French vocabulary in order to minimize



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interference


(002) In considering the seven sins of memory, transience is to the sin of ________ as suggestibility is to the sin of ________.



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forgetting; distortion


(006) When Carlos was promoted, he moved into a new office with a new phone extension. Every time he is asked for his phone number, Carlos first thinks of his old extension, illustrating the effects of



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proactive interference.


The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system is called ________ memory.



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long-term


Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________.



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retention; acquisition



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A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called ________ memory.



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iconic


Memory for skills is called



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implicit memory.



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Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather's unexpected death. This best illustrates



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flashbulb memory.



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After suffering damage to the hippocampus, a person would probably



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lose the ability to store new facts.



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(023) Which of the following questions about the word pen would best prepare you to correctly remember tomorrow that you had seen that word in today's test?



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Would the word fit in this sentence: “The boy put the ________ on his desk”?


(017) Semantic encoding refers to the processing of



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meanings


(021) Children can better remember an ancient Latin verse if the definition of each unfamiliar Latin word is carefully explained to them. This best illustrates the value of



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semantic encoding.


(009) Memory techniques such as acronyms and the peg-word system are called



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mnemonic devices.



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(019) Who emphasized that we repress anxiety-arousing memories?



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Freud



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(005) Using nonsense syllables to study memory, Ebbinghaus found that



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the most rapid memory loss for new information occurs shortly after it is learned.


(011) Repression is an example of



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motivated forgetting.


The retention of encoded information over time refers to



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storage.


A modern information-processing model that views memories as emerging from particular activation patterns within neural networks is known as



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connectionism



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The human capacity for storing long-term memories is



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essentially unlimited.



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Amnesia victims typically have experienced damage to the ________ of the brain.



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hippocampus


Implicit memory is to explicit memory as ________ is to ________.



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skill memor