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The thoracic viscera consists of the:

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Lungs, mediastinum, diaphragm


The area between the two lungs is termed the :
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medistinum


The respiratory system proper consists of the :

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Trachea and bronchi and both lungs


Where does the trachea lie in relation to the esophagus?
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Anterior


What is the name of the hook-like process on the last tracheal cartilage?
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Carina


How many primary branches are there in the right lung?
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3


The lungs are composed of a light, spongy, elastic substance called the :
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Parenchyma


The part of the lung that extends above the clavicle is termed the:
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Apex


The right lung is about how much shorter than the left?
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1 inch


What is the name of the double-walled serous membrane sac that encloses the lung?
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Pleura


Which of the following are a part of the mediastinum?
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heart and esophagus


Which of the following would not be included in the mediastinum?
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Larynx and diaphragm


Where does the esophagus lie in relation to the trachea?
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Behind the trachea


Which of the following best describes the position of the thymus gland?
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Behind the manubrium sterni


What is the most optimal position of the patient for examinations of the heart and lungs?
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upright


Why is the left lateral chest position the most commonly used for lateral radiographs of the chest?
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Patient's heart is closer to the IR


The presence of gas or air in the pleural cavity is termed;
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Pneumothorax


Which of the following radiographs are usually taken on a patient who is suspected of having a small amount of free air in the pleural cavity?
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AP, full inspiration


Which of the following exposure techniques is required to penetrate all of the thoracic anatomy?
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High kVp


Which of the following are advantages of using an SID of 72 inches for chest radiography?
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Decreased magnification of the heart


How far above the shoulders should the IR be positioned for the PA and later chest radiographs?
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1 ½ to 2 inches


Where are the hands placed for a PA projection of the chest?
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Back of the hands on the hips


What is the CR angle for a PA chest radiograph?
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Perpendicular


What is the optimal respiration phase for a PA or lateral chest radiograph?
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Full inspiration – second breath


How many ribs should be visible above the diaphragm on a PA chest radiograph?
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10


Which plane must be accurately parallel with the IR to prevent distortion of the thoracic structures during a lateral chest radiograph?

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Midsagittal plane


How many degrees of body rotation are required for routine AP or PA oblique chest radiography?
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45 degrees


Where should the top of the IR be positioned for a PA oblique projection of the lungs?
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1 ½ - 2 inches above the vertebral prominens


What is the degree of body rotation for the PA oblique, LAO position of the chest during a cardiac series?

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55-60 degrees


What is the CR angulation for an AP or PA oblique projection of the chest?
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0 degrees


When the patient is properly positioned for a PA oblique of the chest, the CR will enter the body:
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At the throracic spine, t7


For AP oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is generally:
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The side closest to the IR


For PA oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is generally:
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The side farthest from the IR


The AP oblique projection,RPO position of the chest corresponds to and essentially produces the same image as the:
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PA oblique projection, LAO


What is the recommended SID for a supine AP chest radiograph?

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72 inches


Which of the following will be observed on a supine AP chest radiograph?
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Clavicles projected higher, Lung fields appear shorter


The Lindblom method is used to demonstrate the:
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Pulmonary apices


What is the CR angle for the Lindblom method (lordotic position) of demonstrating the pulmonary apices?

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0 degrees


How far should the patient stand in front of the grid device before leaning backward for the lordotic position?

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1 foot


What is the respiration phase for the AP axial projection of the pulmonary apices?
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Inspiration


If the patient cannot be placed in the lordotic position for radiography of the pulmonary apices, what is the CR angle that can be used to project the clavicles above the apices?
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15 -20 degrees cephalad


How is the CR positioned for an xray projection done with the patient placed in a decubitus position?
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Horizontal


How long should the patient remain in position before making the exposure when performing a projection in the lateral or dorsal decubitus position?
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5 minutes


If the lateral decutitus position is used to demonstrate fluid in the pleural cavity, which side must the patient lie on?

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Affected side


If the lateral decubitus position is used to demonstrate free air in the pleural cavity, which side must the patient lie on?
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unaffected side


The radiographic projections performed using the decubitus positions are:
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Lateral, AP/PA


What is the patient position for a lateral projection done in the dorsal decubitus position?
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Supine


Which side of the patient’s chest is placed against the vertical IR for a ventral or dorsal decubitus lateral projection?
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affected side


What is the respiration phase for AP or lateral projections performed in the decubitus position?
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Full inspiration


Which of the following are required to produce a radiograph using a decubitus position?
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Patient in the recumbent position &
Horizontal xray beam


Which of the following must be clearly demonstrated on xray projections done using a decubitius position?
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Entire lung & Patients arms not visible in image &
Identification to indicate which decubitus


The thoracic cavity contains which of the following:

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heart & thymus gland & inferior esophagus


The thoracic cavity is enclosed with a shiny, slippery lining called the:
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Serous membrane


Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion within the:

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Alveoli


The costophrenic angle is a part of the

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Lungs


The smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree is the

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alveoli


The space between the pleural walls is called the

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Pleural cavity


Each lung is divided into specific segments called
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Lobes


What is the recommended SID for a PA chest radiograph?
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72 inches


Which of the following should be clearly demonstrated on an AP or PA oblique projection of the lungs?
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Both lungs in their entirety &R and L primary bronchi


Where should the top of the IR be positioned for an AP oblique projection of the lungs?
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1 ½ - 2 inches above the vertebral prominens or 5 inches above the jugular notch


Where should the top of the IR be positioned for a supine AP chest radiograph?
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1 1/2 to 2 inches above the shoulders


How far above the top of the shoulders should the IR be positioned for any decubitus position of the chest?

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1 ½ -2 inches above the shoulders


Which ribs are called false ribs?

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8 to 12


Which of the following form the bony thorax:
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sternum & 12 pairs of ribs & 12 thoracic vertebrae


The anatomical part of the sternum identified in the figure below is called the:

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manubrium


The space between each of the ribs is called the:

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Intercostal spaces


The part of the rib identified in the figure below is the:

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head


Which joints articulate with a vertebre?
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costrovertebral & costrotransverse


For which type of body habitus will the diaphragm be at the highest level in the body?
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Hypersthenic


Which of the following is the recommended breathing technique that should be used when examining the ribs that lie at the level of the diaphragm?

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Two deep expirations (or inspirations)


Which of the following is the essential projection and body position for demonstration of the sternum?
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PA oblique, RAO


Which projection and body position will demonstrate the sternum through the heart?

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PA oblique, RAO


Which of the following projections would be utilized to demonstrate the sternum on a trauma patient who must remain relatively supine?

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AP projection, LPO


How much should the body be rotated for a PA oblique projection of the sternum?

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15 – 20 degrees<


Where is the IR centered for a PA oblique sternum?

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7th thoracic vertebra


Which breathing techniques can be used when performing an oblique projection of the sternum?
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Expiration
Slow, shallow breathing


The CR angle for the PA oblique projection of the sternum is:
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Perpendicular


Which SID is recommended for the lateral projection of the sternum for management of magnification?
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72 inches


Where should the patient’s hands be positioned for an upright lateral sternum?
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Locked behind the back


What is the respiration phase for a lateral projection of the sternum?
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Deep inspiration


Where is the center of the IR positioned for a PA projection of sternoclavicular joints?
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3rd thoracic vertebra


How is the patient’s head positioned for a PA projection of one sternoclavicular joint?

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Turn the head to face the affected side


The phase of respiration for a PA projection of the sternoclavicular joints is:
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Expiration


The CR angulation for a PA projection of the sternoclavicular joint is:
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0 degrees


How much is the body rotated for the PA oblique projection of the sternoclavicular articulation (body rotation technique)?
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10-15 degrees


When performing the PA oblique projection (body rotation technique) of the sternoclavicular articulations, which of the joints would be demonstrated?
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The joint closest to the IR


How far is the top of the 35 x 43 cm IR placed above the upper border of the shoulder for projections of the ribs?
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1 ½ inches


How are the hands placed for a PA projection of the ribs