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Louis Pasteur


s broth boiled to kill bacteria – left open to the air with flask that had long curved dipped neck – no growth

s broth boiled to kill bacteria – left open – growth

s controlled: broth, boiling, area

s manipulated: openness to air

s responding: the broth with the flask collected the bacteria before it got into the broth and had no growth – the other one just collected the growth

Bacteria: can not travel against gravity (couldn't travel up the neck of the flask so just collected before it got into the flask)

Scientific Law

backed up by everyone and there is significant evidence proving it

Scientific Theory

backed by some people but there is some dispute, backed up by experiments, but not necessarily evidence.

spontaneous generation

- the idea that life could arise from nonliving matter

- some argued that air was needed for new life because air was a “life force” without which new life was not possible



an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world

more of a VERB than a NOUN

Characteristics of Living Things


1) reproduction

2) consists of cells

3) genetic code

4) growth and development

5) utilizes energy

6) adapts to environment

7) maintains internal environment

8) movement

9) death

controlled experiment

an experiment where only one variable is changed at a time


collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings

cell culture

a cell that is able to reproduce to a group of cells from one single cell

cell fractionation

the way biologists separate the different cell parts – they break the cells, put them in a tube, spin the tube so the parts separate and remove a specific part to be studied

responding variable

the variable that changes in response to the manipulated variable

manipulated variable

a variable that is deliberately changed in a controlled experiment


organisms keep internal conditions to survive

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