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Allis Test


Patient lies supine with knees flexed and feet flat on the table, trying to line up the medial malleoli

Observe knee height (indicates tibial deficiency)
And the proximity of the knee to body (indicates femoral deficiency)


Anvil Test


Patient should lie supine, and the leg is raised while you gently strike the inferior calcaneus


Localized pain in the leg indicated tibial or femoral fracture

Localized pain in the calcaneus indicates calcaneal fracture


Apley’s Compression Test


Patient bends the knee to 90, apply downward pressure

Internally rotate the knee & repeat to test lateral meniscus

Externally rotate the knee & repeat to test medial meniscus


Apley’s Distraction Test


Patient bends the knee to 90, Place you knee on the patient’s thigh, firmly grasp the distal leg (not the ankle) and pull up.

Internally rotate the knee & repeat to test lateral meniscus

Externally rotate the knee & repeat to test medial meniscus


Apprehension Test for Patella


Carefully push the patella laterally. If the patella is close to dislocating, the patient will contract the quads to bring the patella back into line.





Dislocation test. If the femoral head is in the acetabulum then the babys thighs are adducted and pushed downward. If gentle pressure causes palpable dislocation it is indicative of lax ligaments or incomplete formation of acetabulum.



Bounce Home Test


For Meniscal Stability


Patients knee is completely flexed and supported, then the knee is allowed to drop into extension


Incomplete extension suggests a torn meniscus


Clarke’s Sign


Patient is lying supine. Press the web of the hand against the superior aspect of the patella and press inferiorly, to stretch quadriceps.

Patient is instructed to contract the quads as you restrict the motion of the patella gently.

Retropatellar pain or inability to maintain contraction test is positive for chondromalacia.


Drawer Test


Patient is laying spine with the knee flexed to 90

Anterior: Hold the foot on the table while pulling the tibia forward. Excessive movement may indicate damage to ACL, capsule, MCL, or IT band.

Posterior: Hold the foot on the table while pushing the tibia backward. Excessive movement may indicate damage to PCL or ACL.


Fouchet’s Test

(AKA: Patellar Grinding)


Knees should be in full extension against the table.
Use a flat hand against the patella. If there is no pain, rub the patella in a circle. Pain or grinding is indicative  of tracking disorders, peripatellar syndrome, or patellofemoral dysfunction.


Hip Telescoping Test


Patient is supine with the hip and knee flexed to 90

Push the femur toward the exam table

Lift the leg from the exam table


If the hip is dislocated there will be significant motion


Knee Abduction Stress Test

(AKA: Valgus Stress Test)


For MCL & medial meniscus Stability


Contact the lateral portion of the knee joint pushing medially


Knee Adduction Stress Test

(AKA: Varus Stress Test)


For LCL & lateral meniscus Stability


Contact the medial portion of the knee joint pushing laterally


Lachman’s Test


For Knee Sprain


Patients knee is held between 0-30 degrees of flexion

Femur is stabilized while the tibia is pulled forward. Soft end feel  with loss of infrapatellar slope indicated ACL or POL damage.


McMurray’s Sign


For Meniscal Stability

Flex the hip and leg to 90, grasping the heel and knee

Internally & externally rotate the lower leg  while slowly extending the knee. Click, snap, or pain is indicative of meniscal injury.

Pain with internal rotation indicates lateral meniscus.

Pain with external rotation indicates medial meniscus.


Ober’s Test


Patient should lie on the unaffected side

Place on hand on the pelvis to stabilize, and raise the ipislateral knee at a right angle (abducts thigh)

Slide your hand distally on the patients leg to the ankle, and have the patient relax – the knee should drop

IT band contracture will cause knee to remain elevated


Ortolani’s Click Test


Baby’s hips and knees are flexed to 90.

Grasp thigh with middle finger over greater trochanter and apply gentle anterior pressure to bring the femoral head forward into acetabulum, noted by a click or clunk.

Examine one hip at a time.


Patella Ballottement Test


Patient is supine with the knee extended and supported by the table. Pressure is applied over the patella directly posterior.

Floating sensation of the patella is positive for fluid or swelling of the knee.


Q-Angle Test



Less than 13 degrees indicates Genu Varum (bow legs)

Greater than 18 indicates Genu Valgum (knock knees)


Steinmann’s Test


For Meniscal Stability


Patient is lying supine with the knee extended. Grasp the ankle and palpate for tenderness at the knee joint. Bring the knee and hip into flexion. If the pain moves more posteriorly with this motion it is indicative of a meniscal tear.


Hibbs Test

Heel to Buttock Test - Lateral

For Hip Pathology


Thomas Test

Hip Flexor Contracture


If the Lumbar spine maintains lordosis and the affected leg flexes so that the patient is unable to lay the leg flat on the table, this may indicate a shortened Iliopsoas muscle.


Patrick FABERE Test

(AKA: Sign of Four)


Trendelenberg Test

Hip Joint Pathology


Iliac crest will be higher on the side of flexed leg



Iliac crest will be lower on the side of flexed leg


Actual / Apparent Leg Length


Actual leg length is measured from ASIS to medial malleolus


Apparent leg length is measure from umbilicus to medial malleolus

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