Select '>' to see answers, then uncheck boxes when incorrect.

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Allis Test

 

Patient lies supine with knees flexed and feet flat on the table, trying to line up the medial malleoli

Observe knee height (indicates tibial deficiency)
And the proximity of the knee to body (indicates femoral deficiency)



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Anvil Test

 

Patient should lie supine, and the leg is raised while you gently strike the inferior calcaneus

 

Localized pain in the leg indicated tibial or femoral fracture

Localized pain in the calcaneus indicates calcaneal fracture



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Apley’s Compression Test

 

Patient bends the knee to 90, apply downward pressure

Internally rotate the knee & repeat to test lateral meniscus

Externally rotate the knee & repeat to test medial meniscus



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Apley’s Distraction Test

 

Patient bends the knee to 90, Place you knee on the patient’s thigh, firmly grasp the distal leg (not the ankle) and pull up.

Internally rotate the knee & repeat to test lateral meniscus

Externally rotate the knee & repeat to test medial meniscus



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Apprehension Test for Patella

 

Carefully push the patella laterally. If the patella is close to dislocating, the patient will contract the quads to bring the patella back into line.



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Barlow’s

 

Dislocation test. If the femoral head is in the acetabulum then the babys thighs are adducted and pushed downward. If gentle pressure causes palpable dislocation it is indicative of lax ligaments or incomplete formation of acetabulum.

 



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Bounce Home Test

 

For Meniscal Stability

 

Patients knee is completely flexed and supported, then the knee is allowed to drop into extension

 

Incomplete extension suggests a torn meniscus



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Clarke’s Sign

 

Patient is lying supine. Press the web of the hand against the superior aspect of the patella and press inferiorly, to stretch quadriceps.

Patient is instructed to contract the quads as you restrict the motion of the patella gently.

Retropatellar pain or inability to maintain contraction test is positive for chondromalacia.



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Drawer Test

 

Patient is laying spine with the knee flexed to 90

Anterior: Hold the foot on the table while pulling the tibia forward. Excessive movement may indicate damage to ACL, capsule, MCL, or IT band.

Posterior: Hold the foot on the table while pushing the tibia backward. Excessive movement may indicate damage to PCL or ACL.



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Fouchet’s Test

(AKA: Patellar Grinding)

 

Knees should be in full extension against the table.
Use a flat hand against the patella. If there is no pain, rub the patella in a circle. Pain or grinding is indicative  of tracking disorders, peripatellar syndrome, or patellofemoral dysfunction.



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Hip Telescoping Test

 

Patient is supine with the hip and knee flexed to 90

Push the femur toward the exam table

Lift the leg from the exam table

 

If the hip is dislocated there will be significant motion



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Knee Abduction Stress Test

(AKA: Valgus Stress Test)

 

For MCL & medial meniscus Stability

 

Contact the lateral portion of the knee joint pushing medially



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Knee Adduction Stress Test

(AKA: Varus Stress Test)

 

For LCL & lateral meniscus Stability

 

Contact the medial portion of the knee joint pushing laterally



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Lachman’s Test

 

For Knee Sprain

 

Patients knee is held between 0-30 degrees of flexion

Femur is stabilized while the tibia is pulled forward. Soft end feel  with loss of infrapatellar slope indicated ACL or POL damage.



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McMurray’s Sign

 

For Meniscal Stability

Flex the hip and leg to 90, grasping the heel and knee

Internally & externally rotate the lower leg  while slowly extending the knee. Click, snap, or pain is indicative of meniscal injury.

Pain with internal rotation indicates lateral meniscus.

Pain with external rotation indicates medial meniscus.



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Ober’s Test

 

Patient should lie on the unaffected side

Place on hand on the pelvis to stabilize, and raise the ipislateral knee at a right angle (abducts thigh)

Slide your hand distally on the patients leg to the ankle, and have the patient relax – the knee should drop

IT band contracture will cause knee to remain elevated



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Ortolani’s Click Test

 

Baby’s hips and knees are flexed to 90.

Grasp thigh with middle finger over greater trochanter and apply gentle anterior pressure to bring the femoral head forward into acetabulum, noted by a click or clunk.

Examine one hip at a time.



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Patella Ballottement Test

 

Patient is supine with the knee extended and supported by the table. Pressure is applied over the patella directly posterior.

Floating sensation of the patella is positive for fluid or swelling of the knee.



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Q-Angle Test

 

 

Less than 13 degrees indicates Genu Varum (bow legs)

Greater than 18 indicates Genu Valgum (knock knees)